Karabagh – Since Ancient Times Up To The Period Of Khanates

Egyptologist David Rohl challenged long held beliefs about Biblical events and its timeline in the first book. In his book he examines events that many exegetes regard as legendary at best. Among those covered include Adam and Eve along with identification of the probable physical location of a real Garden of Eden, and their descendents as the early leaders of what became the Sumerian civilization. His arguments are intricate and detailed.

The region of Eden is located by a study of the various associated names, starting with the rivers. These are named in the Genesis account and referred to by reference to countries such as Havilah, Cush and Ashur. He identifies these as the Kezel Uizhun (Pishon), Gaihun/Aras (Gihon), Tigris (Hiddekel) and Euphrates (Perath). Consequently, the general region can be marked out geographically. The garden of Eden is then located more specifically in the east of Eden as in the Tabriz valley (Adji Chay), with Cush in Azerbaijan and Havilah in the Iranian mountains.

The garden of Eden [Biblical] is then located more specifically in the east of Eden as in the Tabriz valley (Adji Chay), with Cush in Azerbaijan and Havilah in the Iranian mountains. Nod is around the city of Ardabil.
Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation
By David Rohl

Ancient Times

Ancient Times

Karabagh is one of the most ancient regions of not only Azerbaijan but also the entire world. The site of the most ancient human beings was found in the Azykh cave of this region. It proves this place to be one of the cradles of the mankind along with Karabagh, the Mediterranean Sea basin and East Africa.

The jaw bone of the Azykh human – Azykhantrope was found in the Acheulian layer of the Azykh cave in 1968. The Azykhantrope is supposed to live 350-400 thousand years ago. The Moustier culture of Karabagh was mainly represented by the Taghlar cave.

Ancient Times

The jaw bone of the Azykh human – Azykhantrope was found in the Acheulian layer of the Azykh cave in 1968. The Azykhantrope is suppoposed to live 350-400 thousand years ago.

Ancient Times

Great changes occurred in the life of Karabagh in the neolite (6-4th millenniums B.C.), bronze and the first iron age (late 4th-early 1 millenniums B.C.). The late Bronze and early iron ages (13-8th centuries B.C) were called the Khodjaly-Gedebey culture. The agate beads with the cuneiform once belonging to the Assyria ruler Adad nirar were found in the archeological monument of the Khodjaly cemetery of that period. These findings and a number of others confirm the existence of economic and culture relations with the Near East.

Ethno-political processes developed along with the industrial and cultural ones. The strong state Manna appeared in the south of Azerbaijan (9-6 centuries B.C), and it managed to protect its independence in the fight with Assyria and Urartu. Urartu’s intervention bypassed the lands of the North Azerbaijan including Karabagh. Armenian ethnos did not exist at that time in the South Caucasus (Transcaucasia). Prominent researches, collective monographs authors expressed unanimous views on the political history of Transcaucasia. The major part of Urartu was located out of the bounds of USSR. The areas of compact settlement of Armenians of the ancient period and Middle Ages were also out of the bounds of the present-day Armenia SSR. The situation changed in times of the Midia stazxczxxte (672-550 B.C) that put an end to the wealth of Urartu. Midia subdued the South-Eastern Transcaucasia. Such a state were typical of the Akhameni period (550-330 B.C).

The political processes stepped to a new stage following the overthrow of the Ahameni state by Macedonian Alexander. As a result of that after the death of Macedonian Alexander that ruled for a short period of time, his empire fell into a number of states and Atropatena appeared in the south of Azerbaijan, while Albania -in the north.

Ancient Times

The political processes stepped to a new stage following the overthrow of the Ahameni state by Macedonian Alexander. As a result of that after the death of Macedonian Alexander that ruled for a short period of time, his empire fell into a number of states and Atropatena appeared in the south of Azerbaijan, while Albania -in the north.

Atropatena owned the north lands of Azerbaijan in the 4th B.C and part of the lands that constituted Karabagh were subdued to that very state.
Albania that established simultaneously with Atropatena existed in the 4-8th centuries B.C and played a great role in the history of Azerbaijan of nearly 1200 years. Albania covered the entire territory of Karabagh and it did everything possible to hold this region in its hands and reached its aim with few exceptions.

Likewise Karabagh belonged to Azerbaijani Albania state, the ethnic communities residing there-uti, sovdey, qargar and others were also Albanian tribes.

As a result of the defeat of Tigran the Second by the Roman Empire in 66 B.C the false legend about the Great Armenia failed and Armenians were turned into the vassals of the Roman Empire. The situation remained changeless till the 4th century. Azerbaijan-Albania state continued its independent policy and included the historical province Karabagh.

Ancient Times

Ancient Times

The all-Turk prominent monument of the oral folklore literature epos Kitabi Dede Gorgut confirms that Karabagh belongs to Azerbaijan and different Turkic tribes lived in the country. The epos Dede Gorgut was widely spread in all the regions of Azerbaijan including Karabagh and the basin of the Goycha lake in the 6-7th centuries. As stated in this valuable national epos, some oghuz heroes even met with him to express their respect. The famous Oghuzname (from the Kitabi-Diyarbekir written by Abu Bekr Tehrani in 1470) written by the instruction of the Aggoyunlu ruler Uzun Gasan (1453-1478) proved that the Goycha lake pastures and Karabagh belonged to ancient oghuz turks, that the forefather of the oghuz turks Oghuz Khagan was buried on the Goycha lake shore and that Bayandur khagan lived and buried in Karabagh on the Goycha lake pastures.

The dramatic changes occurred in the history of Karabagh with the intervention of Arabian Caliphate and the downfall of Albania. Before Arabian intervention the ethnic composition of the historical population of Karabagh had been homogeneous that is all the tribes generated from Azeri-Arbanian roots while as a result of the tragic policy of Arabic caliphate the religion of Armenians dominated in the mountain regions of the province and later this process occurred in the ethnic field as well: the population of the historical region of Albania Arsakh was first converted to gregorianity and later armenified.

The 19th-early 13th centuries, the period of the Sadjids-Atabeys-Shirvanshahs were the times pf the strengthening of Azerbaijan in the entire South Caucasus. In fact Sadjids and Atabeys unified the historical lands of Azerbaijan.

The Khachyn principality, established on the territory of the former Albania reached the highest level of its development in times of Gasan Djelal (1215-1261) from the dynasty of Mehranies. He is known as the prince of the Khachyn states, the mighty prince of the Khachyn and Arsakh states as well as the ruler of Albania in the narrative and epigraphic monuments of that period. In other words, the great titles of Gasan Djalal related to the history of Azerbaijani Albania. One of the most wonderful pearls of Albanian architecture-the Ganzasar monastery was erected at that period…

In period of the ruling of Kharezmshah Djelaleddin, that ruined Atabeys state weakened by the first intervention of Mongolians (1220-1222) Karabagh was controlled by him (1225-1231). In period of the second intervention of Mongolians and the completion of Azerbaijan’s occupation (1231-1239) Karabagh like other lands of Azerbaijan was part of the Mongolian khaganate (1239-1256) and later of Hulakues (Elkhanies ) state (1256-1357). The information of this period of Karabagh’s history is much wider and well studied It would be enough to say that two of the Mongolian rulers (Gazan khan and Arpa khan) ascended the throne in Karabagh and two others (Argun khan and Abu Said) died there.

Ancient Times

Ancient Times

In the 15th century Karabagh was part of the Azeri states Garagoyunlu (1410-1467) and Aggoyunlu (1468-1501). Yet in times of Garagoyunlus an event occurred in the life of Karabagh which told on its further history. The dynasty of the former Albanian ruler Gasan Djelal (Djelali) was attached the title of the melik (ruler) from the Garagoyunlu shah Djahan in the 15th century. Later the property of Djelalis was divided in five feudal principalities (Gulistan, Djeravert, Khachyn, Varanda and Dizaq…

The centralization of all the lands of Azerbaijan was initiated with the establishment of the Sefevi state (1501). The lands of Azerbaijan were completely centralized as a single state in the mid 16th century. Thus, the Sefeli state of Azerbaijan became the second larger region after the Osmanly empire.

The lands of Azerbaijan were completely centralized as a single state in the mid 16th century. Thus, the Sefevi state of Azerbaijan became the second largest region after the Osmanly empire.

Ancient Times

Sefevis established four principalities in Azerbaijan including the Karabagh or Ganja province. The detailed journals worked out in that regions creates clear picture of the administrative division of the said principality. According to the date of 1593 the Ganja-Karabagh province fell into 7 regions and 36 districts. Almost all of 1.3 thousand geographical names were taken from Azeri language. After the Sefevies lost their strong positions, the lands of Azerbaijan became the center of wars between, Iran, Russian and the Osmanly empire.

At that period the Ganja-Karabagh lands were part of the Osmanly empire. The journals worked out in times of the Osmanly empire also prove the domination of Azerbaijanis among the region’s population. According to the census enumerations the population of the Ganja-Karabagh province totaled 122 thousand people in 1727. Azerbaijanis accounted for 80.3 thousand people (66%), Armenians (if exactly the armenified Albanians converted to gregorianism) – for 37.8 thousand people (31%), Kurds-for 3.7 thousand people (3.1%).

At the reported period the Albanians that were converted to gregorianism intensified their political activity under the active support of Russia.

Nadir shah Afshar who came to power overthrowing the last Sefevi ruler Abbas the third applied cruel punitive measures to the Turkic-Muslim population of the Ganja-Karabagh province that did not recognize his government. This factor helped consolidation of the Karabagh Albanian meliks and provoked the separatism. After the death of Nadir his state fell into pieces and new states-khanates were established in Azerbaijan. In other words, Azerbaijan restored its independence through creation of such states. Two Azerbaijani khanates Ganja and Karabagh established on the territory of the former Ganja-Karabagh province.

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